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Home Chinese Cities and Province Information Shaanxi Province Yanan

China City Information: Yanan (Yan'an)

Yanan (Yan'an) Basics
  Area (City)  
  Area (Metro)     37,029 square km
Population:     2.15 million (2006)
Coordinates:     35°21'-37°31'N  107°41'-110°31'E
Local Time:  
January Average  Temperature:     -6.5°C (20.3°F)
July Average  Temperature:     22.9°C (73.22°F)
Average Frost Free Days:     140-165 days/year
Average Elevation:     800-1800 meters
Annual Rainfall:     543 mm
Annual Sunshine:     2,500 hours
Phone Area Code:     0911
Postal Code:     716000
Yanan (Yan'an) Information

Yan'an, also called Fushi in history, is located in northern part of Shaanxi Province, about 350 km north of Xi'an. Yan'an is one of the most famous city in China's modern history and the history of the Chinese Communist Party. In the light of the tourists, Yan’an’s attraction mainly lies in its “double yellowness and double sacredness”. The double yellowness refers to the Hukou Waterfall of the Yellow River and the Loess (Yellow Earth) Plateau folkways. Hailed as the sacred place of the Chinese revolution as well as of the Chinese nation, It hence got the name “double sacredness”.

view of yan'an city
View of Yan'an City

Throughout history, Yan’an has been the political, economic, cultural and military center of north Shaanxi. As one of the birthplaces of the Chinese nation, it has a rare historical and cultural legacy. According to statistics, the historical relics discovered in Yan’an amount to 5,808 sites, including 2,956 ancient cultural relics, 491ancient mausoleums, 177 grottos, 1,344 stone carvings and 180 ancient architectures. These historical relics are featured with a great variety and a wide distribution.

During the Anti-Japanese War period and China’s War of Liberation period, the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, led by Chairman Mao, was seated in Yna’an, leaving some 140 historical relics and memorable sites of the revolution. Among these are the former residence of old-generation leaders, the former sites of central committee offices and of significant conferences, the one-time battlefield, the mausoleum of the martyrs and the memorial halls. These, together with the Yan’an spirit, have all become part of Yan’an’s lingering charisma today.

chairman mao in yanan in 1940's
Chairman Mao in 1940's

For hundred of years, generations of Yan’an natives have lived on this land, creating and developing the unique folkways held by north Shaanxi. This is also worth a visit.
Yan’an is endowed with rich tourist resources. Currently, it has four cultural relics at State level, 26 at provincial level and 183 at city and county levels. Below are some scenic spots and historical and cultural sites worth a visit in Yan’an.

About 170 km away from downtown Yan’an, the Mausoleum of the Yellow Emperor lies peacefully in the embrace of the cedar woods on the Qiaoshan Mountain. Various ancient structures can be found in the temple and courtyard, together with some 50 stone tables ordered by the emperors of various feudal dynasties. The 80,000 millennium-old cedar trees make a magnificent canopy. These are said to be planted by the Yellow Emperor, who is acknowledged as the ancestor of the Chinese nation.

yan'an pogoda on Phoenix Hill
Yanan's Icon - Pagoda on top of Phoenix Hill

Located on the cliff at the southern side of the Zhongshan Hill, the grotto of Zhongshan Temple dates back to the Song Dynasty (960-1279). Some 20 meters wide, 14 meters deep and 7 meters high, the main cave claims to have 10,000 Buddhist sculptures. Inside are eight stone pillars and an altar with three groups of figures. The walls and pillars are also decorated with all kinds of small Buddhist sculptures. Around the main cave lie some small caves.

yanan's cave house
Cave Houses in Yanan

Facing the Phoenix Hill and the Pagoda Hill, the Oingliangshan (Refreshing) Hill pierces sharply into the sky and overlooks the Yanhe River. Here shelter grottos, stone carving and sculptures of different feudal dynasties, among which the No.1 Grotto is known as the Cave with 10,000 Buddhist Sculptures. The Qingliangshan Hill has many scenic spots. On the top stands the Taihemiao Temple, to its west lies the Shipiyan Rock and The Peach Blossom Grotto and on the hillside runs the Poem Lake, the Moon Well and Dijiaquan Spring. Moreover, it was where the Central Press, the Xinhua Broadcasting Station and the Xinhua News Agency once settled, winning itself the name of News Hill.

yanan city and yan river
Yan'an an and Yan River

Originally built in the Tang Dynasty (618-907), the pagoda on the hillside of the Pagoda Hill is the symbol of Yan’an. On the top of the Pagoda hill stand the ancient beacon tower and watchtower; the latter also called the Picking-Star Pavilion. At the foot of the hill intact cliff inscriptions and stone tables stretch for 260 meters, all bearing high aesthetic value.

Linking the Central Shaaxi Plain to Inner Mongolia, the Qinzhidao Passage is a large scale military passage built 1,200 years ago. Wide and smooth, the passage looks magnificent by today’s standards.

Apart from all the above-mentioned places, almost each county and city in Yna’an has its own notable ancient historical relic’s .And there are 140 historical relics of the revolution. With a floor space of 5,000 square meters and exhibition area of 3,241 square meters, the Yan’an Revolution Memorial Museum has a rich content and a high historical value for its reveals a ture and complete picture of Yan’an Period of the Chinese Revolution.

Yan’an also has a great variety of folk crafts. Its local dwelling caves are warm in winter and cool in summer. The paper-cuttings on windows serve as a reminder of the ancient culture of the nation.


chairman mao in Yanan's cave house office during the anti-japanese war
Mao is working in a cave office


chairman mao is speaking to the public before cave house
Mao is speaking during a meeting in front of a cave house




 Yanan (Yan'an) Useful Links and Sites
 Yanan (Yan'an) Related Report and Article Links
 China's Administrative Divisions
4 Municipalities

23 Provinces

5 Autonomous Regions

2 Special Administrative Regions (SAR)

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